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系動詞：表示狀態或狀態變化的動詞，沒有實際的動作意義。 如 be動詞（am, is, are）；感官系動詞（look, sound, smell, taste, feel）；保持類系動詞（keep, stay, remain）；狀態變化類系動詞（become, get, turn, go）等。
種類：be動詞（am, is, are） look, sound, smell, taste, feel, seem, appear, become, turn 表語：名詞 or 形容詞
不及物動詞（Intransitive Verb）vi. 特點：主語自身可以完成，不需要作用對象 習慣：帶狀語（修飾動作的成分）
及物動詞（Transitive Verb）vt. 作用：說明主語動作的作用對象 賓語：主語動作承受對象
雙賓動詞（Dative Verb） 特點：後面成分有人（間接賓語[接受者]）又有物（直接賓語[承受者]）
詞義：完整 作用：能獨立充當謂語 分類：助動詞和情態動詞以外的動詞
詞義：不完整 作用：無法獨立充當謂語 必須和實義動詞連用，構成各種時態、語態、語氣、否定、疑問 分類： Be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being Do: does, did Have: has, had, having
變化形式：am, is, are, was, were, been, being 功能： 1，幫助構成進行時態 I am studying grammar. He is playing football. 2，幫助構成被動語態 I was cheated.
變化形式：Does, did 功能： 1，幫助實義動詞構成否定 I do not like English. 2，幫助實義動詞構成疑問 Do you like English?
變化形式：Has, had, having 功能： 1，幫助構成完成時態 I have studied English for 3 years.
be, do, have可作實義動詞又可作助動詞
詞義：有詞義，表示說話者對某種行為或狀態的看法或態度 表示可能、建議、願望、必要、允許、能力、懷疑 作用：無法獨立充當謂語，必須和實義動詞一起構成覆合謂語 常見： can/could/may/might/must/shall/should/will/would/have to/ought to/used to/need/dare
變形：助動詞或情態動詞後+not 例：He is a teacher. He is not a teacher. I can swim. I cannot swim. He will come to the party. he will not come to the party
變形：借助助動詞do not來構成，第三人稱用does+not+動詞原形，過去式did+not 例：I like English. I do not like English. He likes English. He does not like English. There are some dogs. There aren’t any dogs.
祈使句：祈使句前+don’t 例：Don’t open the door.
不定式：不定式前+not 例：She asks the boy not to play in the street.
變形：助動詞 or 情態動詞移至句首 例：He is a teacher. Is he a teacher? Yes, he is./No, he isn’t.
變形：加do does did於句首，實義動詞變原形 例：He likes English. Does he like English? Yes, he does/No, he doesn’t. I like English. Do you like English? Yes, I do/No, I don’t.
對人提問：who He can sing in English. Who can sing in English. I saw him at the party last night. Who did you see at the party last night?
對事或物：what I like English. What do you like? I am studying English grammar. What are you doing? I am studying English grammar. What are you studying? I’d like to go swimming tomorrow. What would you like to do tomorrow?
對時間提問：when I was born in 1980. When were you born?
對地點提問：where He lives in Beijing. Where does he live?
對方式提問：how He goes to school by bus. How does he go to school?
對原因提問：why I often study at the library because it’s quiet. Why do you often study at the library?
Which： Could you lend me your pen? Sure. I have two pens. This pen has black ink. That pen has red ink. Which pen/Which one/Which do you want? That red one. Thanks. Which也可不接名詞，這時which用作代詞。
Whose： 必須接名詞 This is his book. Whose book is this? I borrowed Jack’s car last night. Whose car did you borrow last night?
單獨使用：對動作方式的提問 How do you go to work? I drive/By car/I take a taxi/I take a bus/By bus. How did he break his leg? He fell off the ladder.
和形容詞 or 副詞連用 How old are you? How tall is he? How big is your new house? How far is it from your home to school? How well does he speak English? How quickly can you get here?
對頻率提問：how often/how many times? I write to my parents once a month. How often do you write to your parents? I go shopping twice a week. How often do you go shopping?/How many times a week do you go shopping?
其他頻率短語 （Every/Once a/Twice a/Three times a）（day/week/month/year）
The present simple tense is used to express a general truth or fact, or an action that occurs regularly or habitually. Generally, the present simple tense verb conveys a sense of permanence. Truth or fact The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The earth moves around the sun. An action that occurs regularly or habitually I often spend two hours reading English in the morning. Classes begin at nine in the morning
事實 The world is round.
經常性，習慣性動作或狀態 He doesn’t work hard. 常連用頻率副詞（助動詞後，實義動詞前） always frequently usually sometimes generally occasionally often never seldom rarely
以there或here開頭句子中，表正在發生的短暫動作 Here comes your wife=your wife is coming. There goes our bus； we’ll have to wait for the next one.
條件狀語（if unless），時間狀語（when as soon as before after ）從句中，表示將來動作 Please let me know when he comes back. What are you going to do when you leave school? I’ll be glad if she comes over to visit me.
The past simple tense is used to express a completed action which took place eat a specified time in the past. The specified time is either stated or implied. A completed action I saw him in the library yesterday morning. I began to learn English ten years ago. A past action that occurred regularly or habitually I slept for eight hours last night. She lived in our town for three years, but now she is living in Beijing.
過去動作或狀態 He was late for school this morning. I bought this computer three years ago.
過去一段時間一直持續或反覆發生的動作 I lived in the country for ten years. He used to do morning exercises. He took a walk after supper when he was alive.
The future simple tense is used to express an action that will occur at some time in the future. Will or Be Going To can be used to express sort of certainty. According to the weather report, it will be windy tomorrow. 說話人認為將要發生 According to the weather report, it is going to be windy tomorrow. 根據明顯跡象判斷 Be Going To is used to express a definite plan. I have bought a computer and I’m going to learn the computer science. Will is used to express a willingness. The telephone is ringing； I will answer it.
will（說話時做出的決定） be going to（對話前做出的決定）
時態構成 助動詞+進行分詞 be+doing 意義 該時刻（具體時間，另一個具體活動背景下），活動正在進行
說話此刻正在進行 What program are you watching? He is not available now. He is talking on another phone.
現階段正在持續的動作 what are you doing these days? I am learning the usage of verb tenses.
最近的將來已定的安排（計劃 安排做） What are you doing on Saturday night? I’m doing some shopping with Jane. I am taking a makeup test tomorrow.
與always forever continually constantly等連用，表示抱怨，厭煩 Jack is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay you back. He’s continually asking me for money.
過去特定時刻發生的事情 I was discussing my thesis with my director at this time last night. What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? I was having dinner with my friends.
過去進行時（背景）+一般過去時（背景下發生的短暫動作或狀態） The phone rang while I was having my bath, as usual. I was watching TV when the phone rang.
將來進行時（will be doing）
將來某特定時刻活動正在進行 I’ll be lying on a beach in Santa this time tomorrow. Don’t telephone after eight tomorrow. I’ll be having a meeting.
名詞短語（名詞與它前面的修飾語） These red roses are for you. I have three close friends. I really need a new computer.
功能 主語 賓語（介詞不能單獨使用，後面所接賓語） 表語
修飾語 限定詞: 泛指，特指，定量，不定量（these/three/a/the/my/that），冠詞（a/an/the） 形容詞: red close new best small
位置 限定詞在形容詞前: 限定詞+形容詞+名詞: three red roses.
專有名詞 Paris, the United States, Bill Gates 普通名詞 可數名詞 個體名詞 student tree hospital house piano 集體名詞 team committee police group family 不可數名詞 物質名詞 paper water cotton air 抽象名詞 birth happiness evolution technology hope 簡單名詞 story student teacher 覆合名詞 girlfriend roommate mother-in-law
例如 paper I need some paper to write a letter（紙 不可數） I have a term paper to write on weekends（論文 可數） I bought a paper（報紙 可數） room（空間 不可數；房間 可數）
可數名詞: 前面可以+a or an or 數詞（two） 不可數名詞: 不可+a or an or 數詞（two）
物質名詞不可數 beer blood coffee cream gasoline honey juice milk oil tea water wine bread butter cheese ice ice-cream meat beef chicken fish chalk copper cotton glass gold iron air fog oxygen smoke
抽象名詞 advice anger beauty confidence fun happiness health honesty information love lunch peace
總稱名詞不可數 furniture fruit jewelry luggage equipment poetry machinery
piece advice bread baggage chalk equipment furniture information jewelry luggage music news
bottle/cup/drop/glass beer blood coffee milk tea water wine
otherwise a loaf of bread/a tube of toothpaste/a pack of cigarette/a slice of meat
覆數名詞後+s’ or 覆數型名詞後+’s her friends’ money the children’s Day
覆合名詞後+’s my father-in-law’s company everyone else’s viewpoints Henry the Eighth’s wives the President of America’s secretary
and連接的並列名詞: 共有情況: 最後+’s ； 各自所有情況: 每個名詞後+’s
重量 度量 價值 two pounds’ weight/a ton’s weight/a ton’s steel/two dollars’ worth of sugar
省略 1)前文以出現，避免重覆 This bike is mine, not Michael’s 2)表示店鋪或教堂（要加the） at the baker’s/at the butcher’s/at the chemist’s/at the doctor’s 3)人名後的所有格省去名詞表示住宅 go to my sister’s/I called at my uncle’s yesterday.
of所有格的其他關系 1)主謂關系 the visitor’s departure/the teacher’s request/the growth of agriculture 2)動賓關系 the children’s education/the boy’s punishment/the discussion of the plan
作用：主句或從句中做主語 She is my daughter. It was he who helped me when I was in trouble. 順序： you, he, I；we, you, they（I總是放在最後）
one：任何人，包括說話人 One is knocking at the door.（錯誤，說話人不算，所以不能用one） Somebody is knocking at the door. One後面使用的代詞，美國一般用he，him，himself，his. We/You/They 可以表示泛指：人們 They say=People say or It is said They say it is going to be a cold winter.
表示country, motherland, moon, earth, ship The ship lost most of her rigging in the storm
作用：做賓語（也可做表語） I like her. Who is it? It’s me. 注意：做表語時，後面跟定語從句時，需要用主格人稱代詞。 It was he in whom we had the greatest faith（he在從句中做介詞賓語） 主格和賓格人稱代詞可以做同位語： We teachersshould be patient with students. Our teachers are all nice to us students.
直接賓語前： He bought me a pen as birthday gift. 直接賓語後：He bought a pen for me as a birthday gift；I’ve lent much monery to him. 若直接賓語是人稱代詞，只能置後，但是不適用於不定代詞： I will give it to you. I’ll show you something；I didn’t give Rex any. 在短語動詞中間：Hand them in；throw it away；pick it up. 若是名詞，則中間和後邊都可：hand your papers in=hand in your papers.
作用：人稱代詞的所有格形式，表所有關系。 形容詞性：不能單獨使用： Your book is over there；His sister is lovely. 表強調時後+own：I wish I had my own house. 名詞性：單獨使用；避免重覆：This is not my book. Mine（=my book） is in my bag. of+名詞性物主代詞： a friend of mine；a teacher of hers=a teacher of her own.
必須主語賓語為同一人時，做賓語：God helps those who help themselves. 強調主語： He himself went to visit the old lady（他親自去看望那個老太太的） 不產生歧義下可置後： He went to visit the old lady himself. He spoke to the boss himself.（有歧義） 強調賓語：反身代詞在賓語後 He saw Tom himself（他看到Tom本人了） I will send this gift to John himself（給john本人，不是通過轉交） 介詞+反身動詞 by oneself：獨自一人地 I went there by myself（我自己一個人去了那里） I went there myself（我親自去了那） of oneself：自動地 The door opened ofitself（門自動地開了）
特點：不能單獨使用，後面需帶賓語（名詞，代詞，數詞，動名詞，動名詞短語，名詞從句） 搭配：在介詞前的詞：動詞（depend on）名詞（pay attention to）形容詞（be kind to） 充當：與其賓語構成介詞短語後可充當主語，補足語 ，定語，狀語
種類： 簡單介詞（at, by, for, from, in, near, of, off, on） 覆合介詞 簡單鏈接：inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without 搭配連用：as to, from above, from behind, from beneath, from under, until after
at the cost of, at the mercy of, at odds with, by means of, by reason of, by virtue of, by way of, in place of, in favor of, in spite of, with an eye to. 關於：in/with reference to, in/with respect to, in/with regard to
at, in, on
1)at（時間點） a.特定時刻：at nine after ten b.不確定時刻：at night, at dawn, at midnight, at that time, at the moment, at Christmas c.年齡段： at the age of eight/at eight He got married at twenty
2)in（時間段） a.長時間段 in the morning/afternoon/evening in spring/summer/autumn/winter in the past, in the past ten years in the twenty-first century a man in his thirties b.在時間之內/後，表將來時 He said he would come back in a month The train is leaving in a minute c.in+動名詞：在做…過程中 In crossing the river, we caught some fish. In working, we can learn a lot. d.幾月：in October
3)on（表示具體日期） a.具體日期和星期 On Monday On my birthday b.特定某天上午、下午等 On the night of December 31, 1999 On the eve of Christmas/New Year On a hot midnight in July c.在第幾天 On his first day to school. On the tenth day I was in Beijing. d.on+動名詞 or 名詞=as soon as：一…就… On hearing the bad news, she burst into tears. On arriving, I came directly to visit you. The first thing I did on arrival of Beijing was visit him.
from 和to或till/until連用 Most people work from nine to five.
since 和時間點連用，從那一時刻起。現在完成時，過去完成時連用 He has been here since last Sunday I haven’t seen him since two years ago I haven’t seen him for two years It’s two years since I last saw him
for 和時間段連用，表示動作延續到說話的那一刻。現在完成時，過去完成時連用 I have lived here for a year I have lived here since this time last year
by a.no later than：不遲於某個時間，到了某個時間 by the end of next year b.by引導時間狀語常與將來完成時 or 過去完成時連用 By the end of next year I’ll have learned 2000 words By the end of last year I had learned 2000 words
at the beginning of 在..的開頭 at the beginning of a book there is often a table of contents. at the beginning of the concert. at the beginning of January.
in the beginning：at first=in the early stages In the beginning, I wrote to my family regularly. later I just gave up
at the end of But at the end of this process, unfortunately, the students are none the wiser. At the end of a book there may be an index At the end of the concert At the end of January
in the end：eventually=at last：最終…. Jim couldn’t decide where to go for his holidays. He didn’t go anywhere in the end.
有last/next/this/every不再加介詞 I’ll see your next Friday.
during for during在…期間內，強調這時間內發生了什麽 for表示延續時間的長短 I had lived in the countryside for 8 years before I moved to Beijing. I studied in this university for 4 years. During that time most of my time was spent in learning English. My father was in hospital for six weeks during the summer.
during接表示一段時間的名詞：stay, visit, travel During my visit to China During the travel to the south During the Middle ages
for+時間段 for six years for two months for ever for two hours
at（小地方） at home, at the office, at school, at the bridge, at the crossroads, at the bus-stop at the doctor, at the hairdresser
in（表示大地方） in a country, in a town, in a village, in the street, in the forest, in a field, in a desert
其他情況（固定搭配） in a line/in a row/in a queue in a photo/in a picture in a mirror in the sky/in the world in a book/in a newspaper/in a magazine/in a letter in the front/back row（at the front/back） in the front/back of the car at the front/back of the building/cinema/classroom
at表示事情發生場合 I met him at the cinema last night. in表示建築物本身 I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema in強調在建築里，at包括建築物周圍及里面 at the restaurant（可以是餐館內，也可以是在餐館附近的某個地方） in the restaurant（在餐館里） at the cinema（在電影院，不一定在里面） in the cinema（在里面） There were a lot of people in the shop, It was very crowed Go along this road, then turn left at the shop
on, over, above
on表示兩者接觸 Put away the books on the desk The dictionary on the table is not mine There is some water in the bottle There is a label on the bottle There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is? There is a notice on the door. It says “Do not disturb”
on的其他情況 on the left/on the right on the first/second floor on a map on the page/on page seven（at the top/bottom of the page） on the menu on the list on a farm on the way to school on the corner of street, in the corner of the room
over不僅接觸，還有覆蓋的含義 Spread the cloth over the table Mon put a rug over me when I was asleep
over還可以表示正上方 There is a bridge over the river There is a lamp over the desk
above僅表示上下位關系，不接觸，也不是正上方 The sun rose above the horizon There is a bridge above the river He is over me（He is my immediate superior） He is above me
below, under, beneath
under在下方，可接觸，可不接觸 I put the money under the mattess（床墊） The dog is groveling under the table
below表示兩個表面之間間隔距離 They live below us
beneath可以替換under，但是偏向抽象含義 He would think it beneath him to tell a lie She married beneath her
send something by post do something by hand pay by check/by credit card（pay in cash） 某事發生：by mistake/by accident/by chance（on purpose）
by car, by train, by plane/air, by boat/sea/ship, by bus by bicycle/bike, by metro/subway/underground（on foot） by car（in a car, in my car, in the car） I don’t mind going by car but I don’t want to go in your car
car, taxi前用介詞in They didn’t come in their car. They came in a taxi.
自行車和公共交通設施前用on on the train/by train, on his bicycle/by bicycle
表示通過 某種手段達到預期效果（與with區別） We succeeded by cooperating with them Our mission is to help our clients achieve their business goals by providing a service for the timely delivery of qualified staff to support their operational needs.
表示用具體的工具做某事 I killed a fly with a fly-flap（蒼蠅拍） We can see with our eyes and write with our hands
表示以某種方式做某事 Write in pencil/in ink Express this in your own words Speak in a low voice Pay in installments（分期付款）
與by相近，through一般多根名詞連用， by多跟動名詞連用 they talked to each other through an interpreter.
a. Seeing is believing. b. Reading is like permitting a man to talk a long time, and refusing you the right to answer. c. Having a successful marriage takes effort and patience, and communication is the key.
It is no good doing sth句型
it形式主語，真正主語是doing sth no可以替換為：any/some good, any/some/no use, a waste of time. a. Is it any good trying to explain? c. It’s not much use my buying salmon if you don’t like fish. d. it’s simply a waste of time and money seeing that movie.
1) there is no point （in） doing something 做某事沒有意義 a. there is no point in my going out to date someone, I might really like if I met him a the time, but who, right now, has no chance of being anything to me but a transitional man 2) there is no use/good （in） doing something a. there is no use your arguing with him b. there is no use your complaining to me about this. 3) there is no doing something=it’s impossible to do something=we can’t do something. a. there is no gainsaying/denying the fact that…毋庸置疑 b. there is no telling what will happen tomorrow. c. there’s no knowing the future=it’s impossible to know the future, or we can’t know it.
appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, feel like, finish, can’t help, involve, overlook, permit, postpone, practice, risk, can’t stand, suggest, tolerate, understand. a. I will overlook your being so rude to my sister this time but don’t let it happen again. b. Many of the things we do involve taking some risk in order to achieve a satisfactory result c. Being a bad-tempered man, he would not tolerate having this lectures interrupted.
demand, deserve, need, require, want
動名詞：主動形式表示被動 不定式：必須用被動形式 a. The garden needs watering/to be watered. 不說 The garden needs being watered. b. Your hair needs cutting/to be cut.
remember, forget, stop, go on, regret
remember doing sth: remember/recall something that happened in the past. 記得已做過某事 a. I still remember being taken to Beijing for the first time. b. I don’t remember/recall locking my suitcase =as far as I know, my suitcase should be open remember to do sth: remember to perform a responsibility, duty or task. 記得需要履行的職責 or 任務。 a. Remember to go to the post office, won’t you? b. Remember to do some shopping after work. c. Clint always remembers to turn off the lights when he leaves the room.
forget doing sth: forget something that happened in the past. 忘記了已做過的某事 I forgot locking the door. So when I came back, I found the door locked. as far as I know, the door should be open. forget to do sth: forget to perform a responsibility, duty or task. 忘記要做的事 As well as getting on everybody’s nerves, he’s got a habit of borrowing money and forgetting to pay it back.
stop doing: 停下經常做的或手頭正在做的事情 I really must stop smoking. stop to do: 停下來去做某事 stop to have a rest.
go on doing sth: 繼續做一直在做的事情。 a. The teacher went on explaining the text. b. Peter went on sleeping despite the noise. go on to do sth: 改做另一件事 a. He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations. b. Finishing the new words, the teacher went on to attack the text.
regret doing sth: regret something that happened in the past. 對已發生的事情感到遺憾 a. I don’t regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her. b. I regret letting slip that opportunity. c. I regret lending him so much money. He never paid me back. d. Now he regrets not having gone to university.
regret to do something: regret to say, to tell someone, or to inform someone of some bad news 遺憾的告訴或通知某人某個壞消息。 a. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment. b. I regret to tell you that you failed the test. c. We regret to inform you that the flight has been canceled.
have difficulty （in） doing sth trouble problem （a lot of fun） （lots of） pleasure a hard time a good time a difficult time
注意: take the trouble to do sth, trouble to do sth, have （no） time to do sth. a. I worked sos late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus. b. I have a hard time getting used to living in a big place.
can’t help doing, can’t resist doing, can’t keep from doing, can’t hold back from doing can’t keep back from doing 注意: can’t help but do, can’t but do, can’t choose but do, etc. No one can help liking Tom；he is such a cute boy.
be worth doing值得做；主動形式表示被動 be worthy of being done 或 be worthy to be done. a. The book is worth reading. b. The book is worthy of being read. c. The book is worthy to be read.
物主代詞（his, my, your等）所有格名詞（Mary’s Tom’s）與動名詞連用，即構成動名詞的符合結構。用來引出動名詞的邏輯主語，以區別於句子主語。 Clint insisted on reading the letter. （Clint看了信） Clint insisted on my reading the letter. （我不得不看信） Would you mind telling us the whole story? （你告訴） Would you mind Tom’s telling us the whole story?=Would you mind if Tom tells us the story He disliked working late He disliked my working late I object to making private calls on this phone I object to his making private calls on this phone.
做主語或賓語 a. Tom’s coming home at last was a great consolation （做主語） b. Do you mind my making a suggestion? （做及物動詞賓語） c. Our discussion of earthquakes would be incomplete if we didn’t raise the possibility of their being caused by external forces.
物主代詞（his）可以改為賓格代詞（him） or 所有格名詞（Tom’s）改成普通格名詞（Tom） a. It’s no use Tom arguing with his boss. b. Do you mind me making a suggestion? c. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.
應用原則： 1) 若動名詞覆合結構在句中做主語，最好用所有格形式 a. Tom’s refusing to accept the invitation upset me. b. His refusing to accept the invitation upset me. c. It was a great consolation his coming home at last. 2)動名詞覆合結構在句中做賓語時候，用普通格或所有格均可 a. Do you mind me making a suggestion? b. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.
It+to do sth句型
1. It+to do sth句型；it做形式主語 a. It is easier to spend money than to make money. b. It takes time to study English well. 形式主語it不能用this或that替換 This is impossible for people to stare directly at the sun.應用it
2. 不定式置於句首做主語，謂語動詞要用單數。 a. To err is human；to forgive, divine b. To solve this problem takes a genius like Einstein. c. To love for the sake of being loved is human, but to love for the sake of loving is angelic. d. To send a letter is a good way to go somewhere without moving anything but your heart.
動詞+ to do
1. 直接跟在一個及物動詞後面做賓語 特點一：句子的主語和不定式的邏輯主語是一致的，動作都是由主語發出。 特點二：這時句子謂語動詞多是描寫態度；不定式動作則說明行為。 a. I hope to see you again. b. This company refused to cooperate with us. c. He promised not to tell anyone about it.
接不定式做賓語的動詞有 agree, appear, beg, begin, dare, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate, hesitate hope, intend, like, love, manage, mean, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, propose refuse, regret, remember, seem, start, swear, try, want, wish
2. 連接詞引導賓語從句的簡略形式：動詞+連接代詞or連接副詞or連詞whether+to do a. I wonder who to invite. （= who I should invite） b. Show us what to do. （= what we must do） c. I don’t know whether to answer his letter. （= whether I should answer） 類似動詞還有：ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, forget, find out, guess, imagine, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, teach, think, understand, wonder
動詞+ sb to do sth
1. 通常結構：動詞+sb to do sth a. They don’t allow people to smoke in the theater. b. The chairman declared the meeting to be over. c. Allow me to drink to your success. d. Allow me to propose a toast to our friendship. f. My mother wishes me to return to China.
常用動詞：advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, like, order, permit, persuade, remind, teach, tell, want, warn, wish（hope不可）
2. 在let, make, have, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, listen to等動詞後面，不定式做賓語補足語 to要省略，改為被動語態，則必須帶to（詳見“不帶to的不定式”）
名詞+ to do sth
1. 動賓關系 被修飾名詞在邏輯上做不定式的賓語 a. She has four children to take care of. b. I had no place to live in. c. You just regard me as a thing, an object to look at, to use, to touch, but not to listen to or to take seriously. d. I gave the kid a comic to read. e. He needs a place to live in. f. I have no partner to speak English with. g. I need a pen to write with. h. I need a piece of paper to write on.
** 注意：** 1. 不定式一般不用被動形式 2. 不定式動詞後面不能再加賓語 a. I gave the kid a comic to read it. * b. I need something to eat it. * 3. 不定式動詞後介詞不省略 a. I have no partner to speak English. * b. I need a pen to write. *
4. 被only, last, next, 序數詞, 最高級修飾的名詞通常用不定式做定語 a. I don’t think he is the best man to do the job. b. The next train to arrive is from New York. c. Clint was the second person to fall into this trap. d. Clint was the only person to survive the air crash.
修飾整個句子： to begin with, to tell the truth, to make a long story short, so to speak, to be brief/exact/frank/honest, to say nothing of（姑且不所說）, to say the least（至少可以這麽說） a. To begin with, on behalf of （代表）all of your American guests, I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality. b. I have a point there, to say the least. c. To make a long story short, he is in hospital now.
目的在狀語 or 結果狀語
a. Hating people is like burning down your own house to get rid of a rat. b. To avoid criticism, do nothing, say nothing, be nothing. c. To acquire knowledge, one must study；but to acquire wisdom, one must observe. d. We had better start early to catch the train. e. I went to the post office to mail a letter.
可以用in order to do或so as to do強調目的狀語 a. We had better start early so as to catch the train. b. I went to the post office in order to mail a letter. c. I quote others in order to better express my own self. d. The teacher raised her voice in order for us to hear more clearly. 注意：so as to不放在句首；to do和in order to do可以放句首。
直接做結果狀語 a. He lived to be a hundred years. b. What have I done to offend you? c. He lived to see second world war.（= he lived until he saw world war II）
never to do表結果 a. John left his hometown ten years ago, never to return. b. We parted never to see each other.
only to do引出意想不到或不愉快的結果 a. We hurried to the railway station, only to find the train had just left. b. All too often, women complain that they’re educated as equals, only to go out into the workforce to be treated as inferiors. c. He worked very hard, only to find he had not finished half of the job.
enough to a. He is not old enough to go to school. b. The teacher speaks loudly enough to make himself heard clearly.
too…to結構：太…而不能 a. The box is too heavy for me to even move. b. The tea is too hot to drink.
句子主語和不定式可以構成邏輯上的主謂關系 這類形容詞通常表示人的性格特征或行為表現 brave, careful, careless, clever, considerate, cruel, foolish, generous, kind, modest, nice polite, rude, selfish, silly, stupid, thoughtful. a. He was surprised to learn how much he had spent. b. The boy was careless to break the window.
句子主語和不定式構成邏輯上的動賓關系 a. She is interesting to listen to=It is interesting to listen to her. b. Relativity theory isn’t easy to understand=it isn’t easy to understand relativity theory. c. She is very nice to talk to=It is very nice to talk to her. d. Mary is easy to get on with=It is easy to get on with Mary. e. English is difficult to speak. f. Football is very interesting to watch. g. Barbara is interesting to listen to because she reads a lot. 在動賓關系的情況需要注意： 1)不定式動詞不用被動式（最容易出錯） a. English is difficult to be spoken.* b. Football is interesting to be watched.* 2)不定式後不加賓語 a. Football is very interesting to watch it.* b. She is nice to talk to her.* 3)不定式動詞所帶介詞不能省略 a. She is interesting to listen.* b. She is easy to get on.*
It’s impossible for fish to live without water.
it’s necessary for students to do more exercise in learning English.
The boy was made to sing the song once again.
He couldn’t help bursting into tears after he heard the news.
She could not but admit that they were justified in this
They forbade him to go to the park
The first explorer to reach California by land was Strong Smith, a trapper who crossed the southwestern deserts of the United States in 1826
He was the first to arrive and the last to leave
The teachers don’t know what it takes to start and run a school.
1. 感覺動詞：see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe 2. 使役動詞：let, make, have a. The teacher has us write a composition every week. b. I saw a man enter the shop. 但為被動結構時，後面需要+to a. A man was seen to enter the shop.
had better, would rather, would sooner, would just a soon, might（just） as well, cannot but cannot choose but, cannot help but a. I cannot but admire his courage. b. We might as well put up here for tonight. c. I couldn’t help but fall in love with you.
do nothing/anything/everything but do省略
a. I have nothing to do but wait. b. I have no choice but to wait（but前沒有do，則不定式+to） c. He needs nothing but to succeed. d. He will do anything but give in 在解釋do的精確含義的名詞從句和定語從句做主語的句子中，be動詞後直接+do e. All that I could do then was wait. f. What I could do then was wait. g. All you do now is complete this form. h. No mountains too high for you to climb. All you have to do is have some climbing faith. No rivers too wide for you to make it across. All you have to do is believe it when you pray.
不同時態的被動語態be變化 is, is being, has been, was, was being, had been, will be, will have been.
實施者明顯 a. The rubbish hasn’t been collected. b. Your hand will be X-rayed. c. The streets are swept every day.
實施者未知或沒必要提及 a. The President has been murdered. b. My car has been moved. c. Rice is grown in many countries. d. The library was built in 1890.
泛指人們 acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think. People believe him to be honest. He is believed to be honest.
主句主語是one, you, they 通常用被動語態 One/You see this kind of advertisement everywhere. This kind of advertisement is seen everywhere. They are building a new public library in our town. A new public library is being built in our town.
避免改換主語（可以接by短語） When he arrived home, a detective arrested him. When he arrived home, he was arrested.
He came here last night. He looks fine.
Someone gave me a gift. I was given a gift. Someone gave a gift to me. A gift was given to me.
Clint broke the window last night The window was broken last night Now the window is broken.
常見interested, excited, satisfied, married, disappointed, scared, frightened, worried, lost a. I am interested in grammar. b. I am satisfied with Clint’s grammar course. c. She is married to her teacher. d. The table is made of wood. e. Are you scared of snake?
a. My watch got broken while I was playing with the children. b. He got caught by the police because he exceeded the speed limit.
a. I stopped working because I got tired. b. I got worried because he was two hours late. c. She is getting dressed to the party and has trouble deciding what clothes to wear.
have/get sth done
have sth done或者get sth done
安排別人把事情做好（主要用法） a. Are you going to repair the car yourself? b. No, I’m going to have it repaired. c. I want to have/get my items repaired. （My items need repairing.） d. I must get my hair cut=I want someone to cut my hair. e. You should get/have your bike repaired. g. If you don’t get our of my house, I’ll have you arrested.
意外或不行的事情 a. I got my car stolen last year. b. Have you ever had your passport stolen? c. Joe had his leg broken in a fight. d. It took me two hours to get the washing done. e. Don’t get your plans changed.